The government of Israel and some supporters have, at times, disputed this position of the international community. The old kingdom of Herod the Great was thus reconstituted. , In 1830, on the eve of Muhammad Ali's invasion, the Porte transferred control of the sanjaks of Jerusalem and Nablus to Abdullah Pasha, the governor of Acre.  The war reached southern Palestine in 1917, progressing to Gaza and around Jerusalem by the end of the year. Egypt lost its dominating position in Canaan as general disorder overtook the Middle East in the later 2nd millennium BCE.  The Dome of the Rock, completed in 691, was the world's first great work of Islamic architecture. Prime Minister Benjamin Netanyahu (L) and Greek Prime Minister Alexis Tsipras, November 25, 2015. For international customers: The center is staffed and provides answers on Sundays through Thursdays between 7AM and 6PM Many of the earliest Christian monasteries outside Egypt were founded in Palestine, which became a major centre of Christian scholarship. Roger (1969) "The United Kingdom and the Beginning of the Mandates System, 1919–1922", in: Redmount, Carol A. One striking aspect of the archaeological record is their lack of pork remains, in marked contrast with finds from other parts of Palestine; and there are also indications that circumcision was being practised. This he accomplished with great aplomb. These threats of course came from the other peoples of the region. When Antony was defeated and killed in a civil war with his rival, Octavian, Herod had to win over the new master of the Roman world. This was sparked by the emperor Hadrian’s plan to establish a Roman colony on the old site of Jerusalem. The Samaritans built their own temple to Yahweh at the town of Nablus, near Mt Gerizim, and the resulting hostility between the two groups would last for many centuries. Following the victory of Christian emperor Constantine in the Civil wars of the Tetrarchy, the Christianization of the Roman Empire began, and in 326, Constantine's mother Saint Helena visited Jerusalem and began the construction of churches and shrines. In the course of the Six-Day War in June 1967, Israel captured the rest of Mandate Palestine from Jordan and Egypt, and began a policy of establishing Jewish settlements in those territories. & Schmidt, B. ", According to Israeli archaeologists Magen Broshi and Yigal Shiloh, the population of ancient Palestine did not exceed one million. From 1987 to 1993, the First Palestinian Intifada against Israel took place, which included the Declaration of the State of Palestine in 1988 and ended with the 1993 Oslo Peace Accords and the creation of the Palestinian National Authority.  Two years later, Palestine was conquered by Muhammad Ali's Egypt, but Egyptian rule was challenged in 1834 by a countrywide popular uprising against conscription and other measures considered intrusive by the population. Political agitators seem to have made more of an impact amongst contemporaries. Herod reigned over Judea until his death in 4 BCE. Facing down Hyrcanus’ enemies, he manoeuvred himself into dominating the ruler. However, Judah was now the only Israelite kingdom left, surrounded entirely by pagan peoples. , The majority of the population was Christian and was to remain so until the conquest of Saladin in 1187. In the eastern hill country, a group of other peoples closely related to the Canaanites had by now established themselves. Since 2000 aside from a limited number of exceptions Israel has refused to add people to the Palestinian Population Registry.  By 37 BCE, the Parthians withdrew from Palestine. David captured the Canaanite city-state of Jebus, and renamed it Jerusalem (“City of Peace”). he adopted the ancient city of Samaria as his capital and turned it into the Hellenistic city of Sebaste (which is Greek for Augusta), and its port was the new Hellenistic-style city of Caesaria Philippi. Moab and Ammon now disappear from the historical record, while the Edomites shifted westwards, into territory that had traditionally belonged to the Israelites. In doing so, he had to navigate the treacherous power politics back in Rome. Bar Kokhba silver Shekel/tetradrachm. David then expanded the Israelite kingdom’s borders by bringing neighbouring peoples, the Philistine cities and the kingdoms of Edom, Moab and Ammon, under his rule. After this, the Jews were banned from living in in or near Jerusalem. Some other terms that have been used to refer to all or part of this land include Canaan, Land of Israel (Eretz Yisrael or Ha'aretz),[iv] the Promised Land, Greater Syria, the Holy Land, Iudaea Province, Judea, Coele-Syria,[v] "Israel HaShlema", Kingdom of Israel, Kingdom of Jerusalem, Zion, Retenu (Ancient Egyptian), Southern Syria, Southern Levant and Syria Palaestina.
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